Wednesday, January 9, 2013

WAR/CONFLICTS CONTINUE WITH THE PHILADELPHIA CAMPAIGN

- THE PHILADELPHIA CAMPAIGN was also a  part of the American Revolutionary War --The British started the campaign in the Spring of 1777, after pulling out of northern New Jersey,  in order to gain control over America's Capital City --- Philadelphia--- seat of the Second Continental Congress.
The Assembly Room in Philadelphia's Independence Hall where the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence in 1776.  At the time, it was called the Pennsylvania State House. 



Independence Hall in Philadelphia, PA.  Photo courtesy of The National Park Service

Carrying 15, 000 troops, British General William Howe transported his fleet via the Atlantic, entering Chesapeake Bay, landing at the head of Elk River August 25, 1777.


This map is an excellent tool to understand the naval route during the Philadelphia Campaign. Description: A map of the Thirteen Colonies during the American Revolution. The map shows the territorial claims west of the Allegheny Mountains, and includes inset maps detailing the vicinity of Philadelphia, the vicinity of Boston, and the vicinity of New York. The map also shows the general areas of the Native Americans.  Source: A. S. Barnes, A Brief History of the United States (New York, NY: American Book Company, 1885)   Map Credit: Courtesy the private collection of Roy Winkelman.  For a link to a .pdf of the map click here



Thereafter, he moved toward Philadephia where he was met by Washington's forces at the Battle of Brandywine Creek, September 11, 1777. Washington's troops were forced to retreat, suffering over 1,000 casualties.


You can watch a reenactment from 2010 of the Battle of Brandywine Creek at this link on utube.

 The 16th of September, 1777, Washington was ready to hold against the British who were behind him.  However, this battle is called the Battle of the Clouds because of a rainstorm that halted the armies and Washington had to retreat to Reading, PA.  On the 19th of September, 1777, Continental Congress ran from Philadelphia to Lancaster, PA , but moved again at the end of the month to York, PA.  September 21, 1777, without warning, the British attacked and defeated General Anthony Wayne's troops and September 26, 1777, British General Howe captured Philadelphia.  With the unsuccessful battle of Germantown, October 4, 1777, where British General Howe had stationed, and the loss of Fort Mercer and Fort Mifflin, October to November, 1777, Washington was not able to prevent the British from taking over Philadelphia.  However, he was able to lead his troops into quarters for the winter at Valley Forge, PA by the middle of December.  British General Howe resigned during his occupation of Philadelphia.






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